The energy storage programs are focused on batteries and capacitors. The battery program is developing new materials and innovative structural designs to increase battery safety, energy density, and power density. A key battery research thrust is understanding the 3-dimensional effects on electronic and ionic charge transfer to design nano-scale electrode structures for increases in battery performance. Naval applications for this research include hybrid electric drive for surface ships, unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) and other underwater platforms, distributed sensors, lightweight batteries for the Marines, and high-reliability batteries for satellites. The capacitor program is developing capacitor materials that enable ultrahigh power and energy densities for pulsed power systems, enhanced cycling stability for extended service life, and faster charge-discharge rates for advanced weapons and electronics. Novel inorganic and hybrid dielectrics are being developed for power conditioning and waveform generation at very high operating temperatures for increased reliability and system design flexibility.